There are several types of volcanic rocks in Cappadocia, such as:

Volcanic Complexes: These are circular to ellipsoidal formations with a diameter of 5-40 km and represent key eruptive spots. There are 19 volcanic complexes known and named for the provinces in which they occur. Erciyes Mountain (3,917 meters) and Hasan Mountain (3,253 meters) are two prominent summits formed by these volcanic complexes. The majority of these volcanic complexes are stratovolcanoes (composed of several volcanic strata) that contain basalt and andesite lava.

Cinder Cones: A cinder cone is a cone-shaped hill of volcanic glass shards (cinders or scoria) and lava flows that surrounds a volcano’s vent. Cinder cones are most often found on the flanks of volcanoes. In Cappadocia, more than 500 cinder cones have been identified.

Fairy Chimneys: Cappadocia’s most beautiful characteristics are the Fairy Chimneys. They form as a result of particular ignimbrites’ erosion (pumiceous pyroclastic deposits), and they come in a variety of forms, including columns, mushrooms, and cones.

Volcaniclastics Rock:  In Cappadocia, a large depression is filled with a sequence of volcanic rocks interspersed with lake or river deposits. These volcaniclastic sediments have been called the Ürgüp Formation, which was created over the last 14 million years or so.